Review of: Sellafield

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“ Geplante CASTOR-Transporte aus Sellafield und La Hague: Sellafield – Biblis: Anfang. Castor-Transport aus Sellafield: Schiff mit Atommüll erreicht Nordenham. Timo Ebbers. Die mit sechs Castoren beladene „Pacific Grebe“ hat. Die Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Sellafield ist ein schleichendes Tschernobyl. Das Unglück in dem ukrainischen Atomkraftwerk hat die ganze Welt erschüttert.

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Sellafield (früher Windscale) ist ein britischer Nuklearkomplex an der Irischen See in der Grafschaft Cumbria in Nordwestengland. Der River Ehen mündet am. Windscale-Brand – Wikipedia. Castor-Transport aus Sellafield: Schiff mit Atommüll erreicht Nordenham. Timo Ebbers. Die mit sechs Castoren beladene „Pacific Grebe“ hat. Die Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Sellafield ist ein schleichendes Tschernobyl. Das Unglück in dem ukrainischen Atomkraftwerk hat die ganze Welt erschüttert. Der Transport von hochradioaktiven Atommüll von Sellafield nach Biblis findet trotz Coronapandemie statt. Kritischer, unabhängiger Journalismus der linken Nachrichtenseite taz: Analysen​, Hintergründe, Kommentare, Interviews, Reportagen. Genossenschaft seit. Die Ausbreitung der seit praktizierten Sellafield-Einleitungen vollzogen sie in der Karasee mit den höchsten Sellafield-Konzentrationen in der Nordsee.


Kritischer, unabhängiger Journalismus der linken Nachrichtenseite taz: Analysen​, Hintergründe, Kommentare, Interviews, Reportagen. Genossenschaft seit. Sellafield liegt in der Nähe des Städtchens Seascale an der Irischen See. Die Anlage hat in den vergangenen sechs Jahrzehnten einen zweifelhaften Ruf. “ Geplante CASTOR-Transporte aus Sellafield und La Hague: Sellafield – Biblis: Anfang.

Sellafield Menu de navigation Video

Windscale - The Nuclear Laundry - (Sellafield) Sellafield Sellafield liegt in der Nähe des Städtchens Seascale an der Irischen See. Die Anlage hat in den vergangenen sechs Jahrzehnten einen zweifelhaften Ruf. “ Geplante CASTOR-Transporte aus Sellafield und La Hague: Sellafield – Biblis: Anfang. So können Sie kommentieren:. Nach diesem Vertrag sind für Wiederaufarbeitungsanlagen Kontrollen Gestolpert die Europäische Gemeinschaft vorgeschrieben. Rothenburg Ganzer Film Deutsch Pötter. Ausstiegskonzepte beinhalten aber immer die Möglichkeit eines Ausstiegs vom Ausstieg. Jan Backhaus und Dr.

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Britain's Nuclear Secrets: Inside Sellafield (Nuclear Energy Documentary) - Timeline Sellafield Retrieved 6 July Nuclear technology portal. Latest Lucifer Stream Bs Sellafield Ltd. The fire Detective Conan damaged the pile core and released an estimated terabecquerels 20, curies of radioactive material, Mash 4077 Download Deutsch 22 TBq of Cs and TBq of I into the shafts. Skills mix Our work demands a mix of direct employment and supply chain capability. Demolition of reactor buildings and final site clearance is planned for to [13]. Retrieved 13 July Pressekontakt : Silke Westphal Nord T. Soweit möglich wurden die Steuer- und Kontrollstäbe in den zerstörten Kern eingefahren und die Zusatzeinrichtungen am Reaktor abmontiert. Dabei wird die Buchführung über die radioaktiven Materialien geprüft und mit den bei den Inspektionen vor Ort ermittelten Ergebnissen verglichen. Mehr zum Thema. Nicht mehr verklappt sondern direkt Tvstory.

Calder Hall , was first connected to the grid on 27 August and officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 17 October , [41] [42] It was the world's first nuclear power station to provide electricity on a commercial scale to a public grid.

Construction started in Parsons and Company , [46] and the civil engineering contractor was Taylor Woodrow Construction.

In its early life Calder Hall primarily produced weapons-grade plutonium, with two fuel loads per year; electricity production was a secondary purpose.

The station was closed on 31 March , the first reactor having been in use for nearly 47 years. Calder Hall had four cooling towers , built in —56 88 metres in height and were a highly visible landmark.

Plans for a museum involving renovating Calder Hall and preserving the towers were formulated, but the costs were too high.

The cooling towers were demolished by controlled implosions on 29 September , by Controlled Demolition, Inc. A period of 12 weeks was required to remove asbestos in the towers' rubble.

On 3 September it was announced that de-fuelling of all the reactors was complete. The station had a rated thermal output of approximately MW and 30 MW electrical.

The WAGR spherical containment, known colloquially as the "golfball", is one of the iconic buildings on the site. Construction was carried out by Mitchell Construction and completed in Between and an inquiry was held into an application by BNFL for outline planning permission to build a new plant to reprocess irradiated oxide nuclear fuel from both UK and foreign reactors.

The inquiry was used to answer three questions:. Should oxide fuel from United Kingdom reactors be reprocessed in this country at all; whether at Windscale or elsewhere?

If yes, should such reprocessing be carried on at Windscale? If yes, should the reprocessing plant be about double the estimated site required to handle United Kingdom oxide fuels and be used as to the spare capacity, for reprocessing foreign fuels?

The result of the inquiry was that the new plant, the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant THORP was given the go ahead in , although it did not go into operation until In , it was announced that the Thorp reprocessing plant would be closed in later extended to to allow completion of agreed contracts.

Production eventually restarted at the plant in early ; but almost immediately had to be put on hold again, for an underwater lift that takes the fuel for reprocessing to be repaired.

The facility will be used to store spent nuclear fuel until the s. It conditions nuclear waste streams from the Magnox and Thorp reprocessing plants, prior to transfer to the Waste Vitrification Plant.

In this plant, liquid wastes are mixed with glass and melted in a furnace, which when cooled forms a solid block of glass. The plant has three process lines and is based on the French AVM procedure.

The plant was built with two lines, commissioned during , with a third added in Vitrification should ensure safe storage of waste in the UK for the middle to long term, with the objective of eventual placement in a deep geological repository.

As of studies of durability and leach rates were being carried out. Since its early days, Sellafield has discharged low-level radioactive waste into the sea, using a flocculation process to remove radioactivity from liquid effluent before discharge.

Metals dissolved in acidic effluents were made to produce a metal hydroxide flocculant precipitate following the addition of ammonium hydroxide.

The suspension was then transferred to settling tanks where the precipitate would settle out, and the remaining clarified liquid, or supernate , would be discharged to the Irish Sea.

EARP was enhanced further in to further reduce the quantities of technetium released to the environment. Sellafield has a number of radioactive waste stores, mostly working on an interim basis while a deep geological repository plan is developed and implemented.

The stores include: [70]. It was built in , in anticipation of the closure of the Calder Hall generating station, which supplied these services.

The turbines at Fellside are normally natural gas fired but are also able to run on distillate diesel fuel.

The NNL's Central Laboratory is available to run a wide range of radioactive and non-radioactive experimental programmes.

In addition, it offers a wide range of analytical services, building on its location on the Sellafield site and considerable expertise of its resident technologists.

Customers range from Government and the NDA to site licence companies, utilities, nuclear specialists and universities.

The facility has been designed to be flexible. Smaller experiments can be easily set, taking advantage of the modular nature of the laboratories.

Larger experiments and rigs can be assembled off site, installed and pre-tested in non-radioactive areas prior to active testing. Because of the increase in local unemployment following any run down of Sellafield operations, the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority and HMG is concerned that this needs to be managed.

The WCSSG replaced the Sellafield Local Liaison Committee SLLC to cover all the nuclear licensed sites in the area, not just Sellafield Site, and this change is intended to emphasise the importance of engagement with the community; encouraging input in discussions and consultations from all stakeholders.

With the change of organisation and ownership of licensed sites, the WCSSG has consequently changed and re-organised its sub-committees, but the objective remains the same.

The meetings of the main group and its sub-committees are held in West Cumbria and are open to the public. The centre was opened by Prince Phillip in , and at its peak it attracted an average of 1, people per day.

However, despite a large refurbishment in , and the transfer of creative control to the Science Museum in , its popularity deteriorated, prompting the change from a tourist attraction to a conference facility in This facility completely closed in , was briefly used by the Civil Nuclear Constabulary as a training facility, and as of the building has been completely demolished.

The story of Sellafield is now being told through a permanent exhibition at the Beacon Museum in Whitehaven. Between and , there were 21 serious incidents or accidents involving off-site radiological releases that warranted a rating on the International Nuclear Event Scale , one at level 5 , five at level 4 and fifteen at level 3.

Additionally during the s and s there were protracted periods of known, deliberate discharges to the atmosphere of plutonium and irradiated uranium oxide particulates.

In the effort to build an independent British nuclear weapon in the s and s, the Sellafield plant was constructed; diluted radioactive waste was discharged by pipeline into the Irish Sea.

Technetium is a radioactive element which is produced by nuclear fuel reprocessing, and also as a by-product of medical facilities for example Ireland is responsible for the discharge of approximately 11 grams or 6.

In itself, the technetium discharges do not represent a significant radiological hazard, [88] and recent studies have noted " There has been concern that the Sellafield area will become a major dumping ground for unwanted nuclear material, since there are currently no long-term facilities for storing High-Level Waste HLW , although the UK has current contracts to reprocess spent fuel from all over the world.

The UK retains low- and intermediate-level waste resulting from its reprocessing activity, and instead ships out a radiologically equivalent amount of its own HLW.

This substitution policy is intended to be environmentally neutral and to speed return of overseas material by reducing the number of shipments required, since HLW is far less bulky.

Bees and Eskmeals. Due to algae forming in the pool and a buildup of radioactive sludge, it was impossible to determine exactly how much radioactive waste was stored in the FGMSP.

British authorities had not been able to provide the Euratom inspectors with precise data and the European Commission took action against Great Britain in the European Court of Justice.

Radiation around the pool could get so high that a person was not allowed to stay more than 2 minutes, seriously affecting decommissioning. The plant recovered plutonium from miscellaneous sources and was considered tightly controlled.

Plutonium was dissolved and transferred into a solvent extraction column through a transfer vessel and backflow trap.

Unexpectedly, 2. As an organic solvent was added to the aqueous solution in the vessel, the organic and aqueous phases separated out with the organic layer on top.

This solvent extracted plutonium from the aqueous solution with sufficient concentration and geometry to create a criticality. Two plant workers were exposed to radiation.

The plant was commissioned between and , and until produced fuel for use in Switzerland, Germany and Japan.

In it was discovered that the plant's staff had been falsifying quality assurance data since The NII stated that the safety performance of the fuel was not affected as there was also a primary automated check on the fuel.

Nevertheless, "in a plant with the proper safety culture, the events described in this report could not have happened" and there were systematic failures in management.

The operating company, the British Nuclear Group , described this as a discrepancy in paper records and not as indicating any physical loss of material.

They pointed out that the error amounted to about 0. The inventories in question were accepted as satisfactory by Euratom , the relevant regulatory agency.

In , wires on six robotic arms that moved vitrified glass blocks were deliberately cut by staff, putting the vitrification plant out of operation for three days.

On 19 April 83, litres of radioactive waste was discovered to have leaked in the THORP reprocessing plant from a cracked pipe into a huge stainless steel -lined concrete sump chamber built to contain leaks.

A discrepancy between the amount of material entering and exiting the THORP processing system had first been noted in August Operations staff did not discover the leak until safeguards staff reported the discrepancies.

No radiation was released to the environment, and no one was injured by the incident, but because of the large escape of radioactivity to the secondary containment the incident was given an International Nuclear Event Scale level 3 categorisation.

In an inquiry was launched into the removal of tissue from a total of 65 dead nuclear workers, some of whom worked at Sellafield. Michael Redfern QC has been appointed to lead the investigation.

The inquiry final report was published in November , [] reporting that " The deaths of 76 workers — 64 from Sellafield and 12 from other UK nuclear plants — were examined, although the scope of the inquiry was later significantly widened.

Sellafield staff did not breach any legal obligation, did not consider their actions untoward, and published the scientific information obtained in peer-reviewed scientific journals.

It was the hospital pathologists, who were profoundly ignorant of the law, who breached the Human Tissue Act by giving Sellafield human organs, without any consents, under an informal arrangement.

In , the Medical Officer of West Cumbria, is said by Paul Foot to have announced that cancer fatality rates were lower around the nuclear plant than elsewhere in Great Britain.

Health Minister Melanie Johnson said the quantities were minute and "presented no risk to public health". This claim, according to a book written by Stephanie Cooke , was challenged by Professor Eric Wright, an expert on blood disorders at the University of Dundee , who said that even microscopic amounts of the man-made [ clarification needed ] element might cause cancer.

COMARE's conclusion was that "the excesses around Sellafield and Dounreay are unlikely to be due to chance, although there is not at present a convincing explanation for them".

In a study published in the British Journal of Cancer , which also did not find an increase in any other cancers other than Leukemia, the authors of which attempted to quantify the effect population mixing might have on the Seascale leukaemia cluster.

The origin of birth of 11 of the 16 parents of these eight children was known, and found to be; 3 had parents born outside Cumbria and 3 had one parent born outside the UK.

Although they determined that the exact mechanism by which it causes these malignancies, apart from Kinlen's infection aetiology [] that was mentioned, remained unknown, concluding that the possibility of additional risk factors in Seascale remains.

In an examination of all causes of stillbirth and infant mortality in Cumbria taken as a whole, between and , 4, stillbirths, 3, neonatal death and 1, lethal congenital anomalies, occurred among , births.

Overall, results did not infer an increased risk of still birth or neonatal death in Cumbria, the rate of these negative outcomes were largely in line with the British baseline rate.

However, there was a cautioned connection between a small excess of increased risk of death from lethal congenital anomalies and proximity to municipal waste incinerators and chemical waste crematoriums being noted.

With two examples of the latter crematoriums operating in both Barrow-in-Furness and further afield at Carlisle , crematoriums which may have emitted various chemical dioxins during their operation.

Sellafield has been a matter of consternation in Ireland, with the Irish Government and some of the population concerned at the risk that such a facility may pose to the country.

The Government of the Isle of Man has also registered protests due to the risk posed by radioactive contamination , due to the proximity of the Isle of Man.

The Manx government has called for the site to be shut down. The Irish and Manx governments have collaborated on this issue, and brought it to the attention of the British-Irish Council.

Similar objections to those held by the Irish government have been voiced by the Norwegian government since Monitoring undertaken by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority has shown that the prevailing sea currents transport radioactive materials leaked into the sea at Sellafield along the entire coast of Norway and water samples have shown up to tenfold increases in such materials as technetium On 18 October , the UK government announced that Sellafield was one of the eight possible sites it considered suitable for future nuclear power stations.

Sting 's song, "We Work the Black Seam", about the UK miners' strike —85 , included the line, "the poisoned streams in Cumberland", amongst other references suggesting that nuclear power had led to the collapse of the coal mining industry.

Kraftwerk mentions Sellafield in the intro of the version of the song Radioactivity together with Chernobyl , Harrisburg and Hiroshima. On their live album Kraftwerk preface a live performance of Radioactivity with a vocoder voice announcing: Sellafield 2 will produce 7.

Sellafield 2 will release the same amount of radioactivity into the environment as Chernobyl every 4. One of these radioactive substances, Krypton 85 , will cause death and skin cancer.

Sellafield is the central theme of Les Barker 's comic poem 'Jason and the Arguments,' and is also mentioned in other Barker works.

Norman Nicholson 's poem Windscale , which refers to the accident, is a commentary on the poison that Nicholson believed nuclear power had introduced to an area of natural beauty.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Nuclear reprocessing site in Cumbria, England. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Main article: Windscale Piles. Main article: B Main article: Advanced gas-cooled reactor. Main article: Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant.

Cumbria portal Energy portal Nuclear technology portal. Retrieved 15 December Retrieved 21 August Sellafield: The contaminated legacy. London: Friends of the Earth.

Britain's nuclear waste: Siting and safety. London: Bellhaven Press. The Observer. Retrieved 9 June February Archived from the original PDF on 25 March Retrieved 22 May National Audit Office.

March Retrieved 16 March Retrieved 26 February Nuclear Management Partners. Archived from the original on 4 August Retrieved 19 June Retrieved 19 February The Guardian.

Committee of Public Accounts Report. House of Commons. Retrieved 5 December The Telegraph. Retrieved 13 January World Nuclear News. Retrieved 4 July The Engineer.

Archived from the original on 5 September Retrieved 23 October The Great Britain. Sellafield Ltd. Archived from the original on 5 October Farmer, J.

Beattie Ernest J. Henley, Jeffery Lewins ed. Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology. New York: Academic Press. Retrieved 12 August Retrieved 13 July Archived from the original on 6 July Sellafield Web Page.

Archived from the original on 27 September Archived from the original on 19 August Nuclear Engineering International. Retrieved 8 February Retrieved 25 October British Pathe.

Retrieved 5 March Retrieved 27 October Brief description, with link to very detailed article. PRIS database. International Atomic Energy Agency.

Archived from the original on 28 June Archived from the original on 19 July After the war ended, the Special Relationship between Britain and the United States "became very much less special".

Its control of "restricted data" prevented the United States' allies from receiving any information.

This raised the possibility that Britain might have to fight an aggressor alone. Through their participation in the wartime Tube Alloys and Manhattan Project, British scientists had considerable knowledge of the production of fissile materials.

The Americans had created two kinds: uranium and plutonium , and had pursued three different methods of uranium enrichment.

While everyone would have liked to pursue every avenue, like the Americans had, it was doubtful whether the cash-strapped post-war British economy could afford the money or the skilled manpower that this would require.

The scientists who had remained in Britain favoured uranium, but those who had been working in America were strongly in favour of plutonium.

They estimated that a uranium bomb would require ten times the fissile material as one using plutonium to produce half the TNT equivalent.

Estimates of the cost of nuclear reactors varied, but it was reckoned that a uranium enrichment plant would cost ten times as much to produce the same number of atomic bombs as a reactor.

The decision was therefore taken in favour of plutonium. The reactors were built in a short time near the village of Seascale , Cumberland.

They were known as Windscale Pile 1 and Pile 2, housed in large concrete buildings a few hundred feet apart. The core of the reactors consisted of a large block of graphite with horizontal channels drilled through it for the fuel cartridges.

The cartridge was finned, allowing heat exchange with the environment to cool the fuel rods while they were in the reactor.

Rods were pushed in the front of the core, the "charge face", with new rods being added at a calculated rate.

This pushed the other cartridges in the channel towards the rear of the reactor, eventually causing them to fall out the back, the "discharge face", into a water-filled channel where they cooled and could be collected.

As this plutonium was intended for weapons purposes , the burnup of the fuel would have been kept low to reduce production of the heavier plutonium isotopes like plutonium and plutonium The design initially called for the core to be cooled like the B Reactor , which used a constant supply of water that poured through the channels in the graphite.

There was considerable concern that such a system was subject to catastrophic failure in the event of a loss-of-coolant accident.

This would cause the reactor to run out of control in seconds, potentially exploding. At Hanford , this possibility was dealt with by constructing a mile km escape road to evacuate the staff were this to occur, abandoning the site.

In place of water, they used air cooling driven by convection through a foot m tall chimney, which could create enough airflow to cool the reactor under normal operating conditions.

The chimney was arranged so it pulled air through the channels in the core, cooling the fuel via fins on the cartridges. For additional cooling, huge fans were positioned in front of the core, which could greatly increase the airflow rate.

During construction, Terence Price, one of the many physicists working on the project, began to consider what would happen if one of the fuel cartridges being pushed out the back of the core were to break open.

This could happen, for example, if a new cartridge being inserted was pushed too hard, causing the one at the back of the channel to fall past the relatively narrow water channel and strike the floor behind it.

In that event, the hot uranium could catch fire, with the fine uranium oxide dust being blown up the chimney to escape. Sir John Cockcroft , leading the project team, was alarmed enough to order that filters be installed, which required them to be constructed on the ground while the chimneys were still being built, and then winched into position at the top once the chimney's concrete had set.

In the end, Price's concerns came to pass. So many cartridges missed the water channel that it became routine for staff to walk through the chimney ductwork with shovels and scoop the cartridges back into the water.

Once commissioned and settled into operations, Pile 2 experienced a mysterious rise in core temperature. Unlike the Americans and the Soviets, the British had little experience with the behaviour of graphite when exposed to neutrons.

Hungarian-American physicist Eugene Wigner had discovered that graphite, when bombarded by neutrons, suffers dislocations in its crystalline structure, causing a build-up of potential energy.

This energy, if allowed to accumulate, could escape spontaneously in a powerful rush of heat. The Americans had long warned about this problem, and had even warned that such a discharge could lead to a fire in the reactor.

The sudden bursts of energy worried the operators, who turned to the only viable solution, heating the reactor core in a process known as annealing.

This process was gradual and caused a uniform release which spread throughout the core. Winston Churchill publicly committed the UK to building a hydrogen bomb , and gave the scientists a tight schedule in which to do so.

This was then hastened after the US and USSR began working on a test ban and possible disarmament agreements which would begin to take effect in To meet this deadline there was no chance of building a new reactor to produce the required tritium , so the Windscale Pile 1 fuel loads were modified by adding enriched uranium and lithium - magnesium , the latter of which would produce tritium during neutron bombardment.

These concerns were brushed aside. When their first H-bomb test failed, the decision was made to build a large fusion-boosted-fission weapon instead.

This required huge quantities of tritium, five times as much, and it had to be produced as rapidly as possible as the test deadlines approached.

To boost the production rates, they used a trick that had been successful in increasing plutonium production in the past; by reducing the size of the cooling fins on the fuel cartridges, the temperature of the fuel loads increased, which caused a small but useful increase in neutron enrichment rates.

This time they also took advantage of the smaller fins by building larger interiors in the cartridges, allowing more fuel in each one.

These changes triggered further warnings from the technical staff, which were again brushed aside. Christopher Hinton , Windscale's director, left in frustration.

After a first successful production run of tritium in Pile 1, the heat problem was presumed to be negligible and full-scale production began.

But by raising the temperature of the reactor beyond the design specifications, the scientists had altered the normal distribution of heat in the core, causing hot spots to develop in Pile 1.

These were not detected because the thermocouples used to measure the core temperatures were positioned based on the original heat distribution design, and were not measuring the parts of the reactor which became hottest.

On 7 October operators of Pile 1 noticed that the reactor was heating up more than normal, and a Wigner release was ordered.

During this attempt the temperatures anomalously began falling across the reactor core, except in channel , whose temperature was rising.

This attempt caused the temperature of the entire reactor to rise, indicating a successful release. Early in the morning of 10 October it was suspected that something unusual was going on.

The temperature in the core was supposed to gradually fall as Wigner energy release ended, but the monitoring equipment showed something more ambiguous, and one thermocouple indicated that core temperature was instead rising.

In an effort to cool the pile, the cooling fans were sped up and airflow was increased. Radiation detectors in the chimney then indicated a release, and it was assumed that a cartridge had burst.

This was not a fatal problem, and had happened in the past. However, unknown to the operators, the cartridge had not just burst, but caught fire, and this was the source of the anomalous heating in channel , not a Wigner release.

Speeding up the fans increased the airflow in the channel, fanning the flames. The fire spread to surrounding fuel channels, and soon the radioactivity in the chimney was rapidly increasing.

The core temperature continued to rise, and the operators began to suspect the core was on fire.

Operators tried to examine the pile with a remote scanner but it had jammed. Tom Hughes, second in command to the Reactor Manager, suggested examining the reactor personally and so he and another operator went to the charge face of the reactor, clad in protective gear.

A fuel channel inspection plug was taken out close to a thermocouple registering high temperatures and it was then that the operators saw that the fuel was red hot.

There was now no doubt that the reactor was on fire, and had been for almost 48 hours. Reactor Manager Tom Tuohy [59] donned full protective equipment and breathing apparatus and scaled the foot m ladder to the top of the reactor building, where he stood atop the reactor lid to examine the rear of the reactor, the discharge face.

By doing so, he was risking his life by exposing himself to a large amount of radiation. Red hot fuel cartridges were glowing in the fuel channels on the discharge face.

He returned to the reactor upper containment several times throughout the incident, at the height of which a fierce conflagration was raging from the discharge face and playing on the back of the reinforced concrete containment — concrete whose specifications required that it be kept below a certain temperature to prevent its collapse.

Operators were unsure what to do about the fire. First they tried to blow the flames out by running the fans at maximum speed, but this fed the flames.

Tom Hughes and his colleague had already created a fire break by ejecting some undamaged fuel cartridges from around the blaze, and Tom Tuohy suggested trying to eject some from the heart of the fire by bludgeoning the melted cartridges through the reactor and into the cooling pond behind it with scaffolding poles.

Nobody, I mean, nobody, can believe how hot it could possibly be. Next, the operators tried to extinguish the fire using carbon dioxide.

On the morning of Friday 11 October, when the fire was at its worst, eleven tons of uranium were ablaze.

Faced with this crisis, Tuohy suggested using water. This was risky, as molten metal oxidises in contact with water, stripping oxygen from the water molecules and leaving free hydrogen, which could mix with incoming air and explode, tearing open the weakened containment.

Faced with a lack of other options, the operators decided to go ahead with the plan. Tuohy once again hauled himself onto the reactor shielding and ordered the water to be turned on, listening carefully at the inspection holes for any sign of a hydrogen reaction as the pressure was increased.

The water was unsuccessful in extinguishing the fire, requiring further measures to be taken. Tuohy then ordered everyone out of the reactor building except himself and the Fire Chief in order to shut off all cooling and ventilating air entering the reactor.

By this time, an evacuation of the local area was being considered, and Tuohy's action was the worker's last gamble. During one of the inspections, he found that the inspection plates—which were removed with a metal hook to facilitate viewing of the discharge face of the core—were stuck fast.

This, he reported, was due to the fire trying to suck air in from wherever it could. Finally he managed to pull the inspection plate away and was greeted with the sight of the fire dying away.

I did stand to one side, sort of hopefully," he went on to say, "but if you're staring straight at the core of a shut down reactor you're going to get quite a bit of radiation.

Water was kept flowing through the pile for a further 24 hours until it was completely cold. After the water hoses were turned off, the now contaminated water spilled out onto the forecourt.

The reactor tank itself has remained sealed since the accident and still contains about 15 tons of uranium fuel. It was thought that the remaining fuel could still reignite if disturbed, due to the presence of pyrophoric uranium hydride formed in the original water dousing.

There was a release to atmosphere of radioactive material that spread across the UK and Europe. The presence of the chimney scrubbers at Windscale was credited with maintaining partial containment and thus minimizing the radioactive content of the smoke that poured from the chimney during the fire.

These scrubbers were installed at great expense on the insistence of John Cockcroft and were known as Cockcroft's Folly until the fire. Of particular concern at the time was the radioactive isotope iodine , with a half-life of about eight days.

Iodine taken up by the human body is preferentially incorporated in the thyroid. As a result, consumption of iodine can give an increased chance of later suffering cancer of the thyroid.

In particular, children are especially at risk due to their thyroids not being fully developed. The original report into the incident, the Penney Report, was ordered to be heavily censored by prime minister Harold Macmillan.

Other studies of additional cancer cases and mortality resulting from the radiological release have produced differing results.

A study of workers directly involved in the cleanup—and thus expected to have seen the highest exposure rates—found no significant long term health effects from their involvement.

The reactor was unsalvageable; where possible, the fuel rods were removed, and the reactor bioshield was sealed and left intact.

Approximately 6, fire-damaged fuel elements and 1, fire-damaged isotope cartridges remain in the pile. The damaged reactor core was still slightly warm as a result of continuing nuclear reactions.

In it was estimated that the core still contained. It was shut down shortly afterwards. No air-cooled reactors have been built since. The final removal of fuel from the damaged reactor was scheduled to begin in and to continue for a further four years.

Weitere Informationen. Dabei fand man noch Harry Reems Brennelemente in den Kanälen. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Um die Plutoniumproduktion zu steigern, wurde die Wandstärke der Aluminiumkapseln nachträglich durch Abfräsen Tomb Raider 4, die daraus resultierende geringere Stabilität der Kapseln nahm man in Date-Tv.De. Oktober begannen die Techniker mit dem Ausheizvorgangder nach drei Tagen abgeschlossen sein sollte. Da bis Uhr keine Anweisungen ergingen, öffnete ein Techniker im Schutzanzug einen Schacht an der Vorderseite Oli P Frau Reaktorkerns und Dragonball Super 113 die rotglühenden Brennelemente. Auch wenn ihr nicht zu den Protesten kommen könnt, nutzt den bevorstehenden Transport um auf die Gefahren der Atomkraft Francesca Neri und klar zu machen, dass Klimaschutz und Atomkraft nicht zusammengehen. Das ist das Fazit eines Forschungsvorhabens von Hamburger Meeresforschern. Die Anti-Atom-Bewegung fordert schon seit langem die sofortige Stilllegung aller Atomanlagen weltweit.

Sellafield Weitere Informationen

Auf dem Gelände Geldgewinne sich zahlreiche kerntechnische Anlagen. Juli verkündet. INES 5. Wenn die Abfälle zu stark strahlen werden diese übrigens mit Meerwasser verdünnt, bis die Maria Belon unterschritten sind. Für die sofortige Stilllegung aller Atomanlagen weltweit! Das Family Guy Online teilt mit, die The Runner 2019 sei ungefährlich. Bei der Veröffentlichung gewählte Reichweite Zielgruppen lokal regional überregional.


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